雅思學術閱讀「完成摘要」  (Summary Completion)解題技巧

雅思學術閱讀「完成摘要」 (Summary Completion)解題技巧

IELTS雅思嗨趴 2020/04/29 人氣(1171)

「完成摘要」(Summary Completion)是雅思學術閱讀中較為困難的題型。考生們所要完成的摘要可能是整篇文章或者某個特定段落的摘要,而且摘要中的文句通常是閱讀文章內容的轉述(paraphrases),所以這個題型非常要求考生精讀的能力。然而,面對有限的時間,考生如何在精讀與快速答題之間取得平衡呢?

範例

讓我們看以下的範例題組:

Questions 1-6

Complete the summary below using words from the box. Seligman's categories of happiness Seligman's first type of happiness involves the enjoyment of pleasures such as ____(1)____. He believes that people should not be under the ____(2)____ that such things lead to happiness that is just not temporary. His second type is related to ____(3)____. Identification of this should lead to ____(4)____ and the result is ‘the good life'. His third type involves having a strong ____(5)____ and doing something about it for the benefit of others. This, according to Seligman, leads to happiness that has some ____(6)____.

  • confidence
  • entertainment
  • incentive
  • leadership
  • thrill
  • perseverance
  • illusion
  • effort
  • ability
  • theory
  • celebration
  • participation
  • ego
  • permanence
  • practice
  • encouragement
  • exaggeration
  • concept
  • conviction
  • support

以上的題組,要求考生從段落下方的字表中,選出適當的字填空完成段落。我們可以發現,段落中只有六題,不過字表中有二十個字,所以不是每個字都要用到。

答題步驟

Step 1:略讀摘要

在精讀之前,考生需略讀過段落,理解段落大意。上述段落討論Seligman對快樂的分類。

Step 2:找到閱讀文章中的相關段落

摘要通常跟閱讀文章的某一兩段有關。考生在進入到「完成摘要」此題組前,應該已經略讀過文章,了解文章大致的結構。以下段落是閱讀文章中與題目相關的段落:

His [Seligman's] findings have led him to believe that there are three main types of happiness. First, there is ‘the pleasant life'- the kind of happiness we usually gain from sensual pleasures such as eating and drinking or watching a good film. Seligman blames Hollywood and the advertising industry for encouraging the rest of us, wrongly as he sees it, to believe that lasting happiness is to be found that way. Second, there is ‘the good life', which comes from enjoying something we are good or talented at. The key to this, Seligman believes, lies in identifying our strengths and then taking part in an activity that uses them. Third, there is ‘the meaningful life'. The most lasting happiness, Seligman says, comes from finding something you believe in and then putting your strengths at its service. People who are good at communicating with others might thus find long-lasting happiness through becoming involved in politics or voluntary work, while a rock star wanting to save the world might find it in organizing a charity concert.

Step 3:利用題目中的關鍵字(通常是名詞與動詞),找到文章段落中的相關句子

舉例來說,摘要的第一題是Seligman's first type of happiness involves the enjoyment of pleasures such as ____(1)____.,所以考生可以利用first type of happiness或pleasures等字尋找段落中的相關句子。利用這個方法,考生找到段落中這個句子:First, there is ‘the pleasant life'- the kind of happiness we usually gain from sensual pleasures such as eating and drinking or watching a good film.。

Step 4:仔細比較題目與段落文句,以選擇答案,注意轉述字(paraphrases)

以第一題來說,題目裡有pleasures such as,段落文句的表達是sensual pleasures such as eating and drinking or watching a good film,所以答案是段落文句中eating and drinking or watching a good film的轉述詞,所以考生應選entertainment。

雖然第一題看似不難,可是考生必須注意,許多題目的答案與段落文句的表達會是不一樣的「詞性」。以第二題來說,題目是He believes that people should not be under the ____(2)____ that such things lead to happiness that is just not temporary.,可是相對應的段落文句是Seligman blames Hollywood and the advertising industry for encouraging the rest of us, wrongly as he sees it, to believe that lasting happiness is to be found that way.。我們可以發現,題目的答案是一個名詞,可是文句中並無意義合適的名詞或名詞片語。學生必須仔細閱讀後,才會發現題目的答案必須是wrongly as he sees it的轉述字,所以答案是illusion。

第三題的話,題目是His second type is related to ____(3)____. 相對應的文句是Second, there is ‘the good life', which comes from enjoying something we are good or talented at.。經過仔細閱讀後,考生可以發現,the good life來自「我們擅長或有天分的事」。意義最接近的名詞是ability。

同樣的道理,第四題的題目是Identification of this should lead to ____(4)____ and the result is ‘the good life'. 相對應的文句是The key to this, Seligman believes, lies in identifying our strengths and then taking part in an activity that uses them.。題目中identification of this的this指的是前句中的ability或strengths,所以題目的答案是taking part in an activity that uses them的轉述詞,剛好就是字表中的participation。

利用相同的方法,第五題的答案是conviction,第六題的答案是permanence。

藉由以上的說明,考生可以發現,「完成摘要」需要學生非常仔細地閱讀與比較題目句與段落文句,而且尋找轉述字需要考生有充足的字彙量。如果考生臨場時間不夠充分,或者字表中有一些字看不懂的話,考生該如何加快答題速度與提高答對的機會呢?

實用訣竅

Tip 1:題目與文章資訊順序一致

以上面的題目為例,如果考生可以找到第二題與第四題的答案,那麼與第三題答案相關的文句,就會出現在第一題與第三題的相關文句之間。考生可以利用這種方法,縮短找到相關文句的時間。

Tip 2:刪除法

如果考生知道答案是段落文句中某幾個詞的轉述詞,但是字表中卻有字詞看不懂,而且看得懂的字裡並沒有適合的答案,那麼考生應盡量刪除不可能的答案。舉例來說,上述第二題的答案是wrongly as he sees it 的轉述字,可是如果考生不認識illusion(幻覺)的話,那麼他們可以在做完其它題目後,從剩下來沒用過的字當中,盡可能刪掉與wrongly as he sees it無關的字。這樣或許會提高答對機會。

總結

在本篇文章中,我們示範如何回答雅思學術閱讀裡「完成摘要」的題型,希望學員能夠應用在平常的練習與正式的考試中。請持續關注我們的文章,一起克服難纏的雅思考試喔!

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