IELTS雅思寫作 Writing Task 2申論題應試實戰技巧

2018/10/25
IELTS雅思寫作 Writing Task 2申論題應試實戰技巧

IELTS 雅思寫作 Writing Task 2 申論題是許多考生感到棘手的考試項目。考生需要在40分鐘內,針對一個主題,撰寫一篇250字以上的短文表達個人意見。除了意見或想法之外,考生更需要提供解釋、證據以及例子,來支持他們的意見與想法。雅思寫作不僅考察考生的英文能力,更考察考生的思考與組織能力。這點可由Writing Task 2 的四項評分指標清楚看出。

除了「詞彙豐富度」(lexical resource)以及「文法準確度」(grammatical range and accuracy)這兩個英文能力指標外,「文章切題性」(task response)評量考生的論點是否切題而非答非所問,「文章連貫性與邏輯性」(coherence and cohesion)則評量考生能否有條理地陳述與支持自己的論點。考生該如何利用短暫的時間,寫出一篇既有想法、又有條理的文章呢?

腦力激盪(brainstorming)

在開始寫作之前,我們建議考生花大約五分鐘的時間,仔細閱讀題目,並且思考適當的答題方式,如此才能確保文章切題。讓我們用以下的題目當例子:

Prison is not a cure for crime. To reduce crime in the long-term, courts should significantly reduce prison sentences and focus on education and community work to help criminals not to re-offend. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?

這個題目要求考生評估一個論證,表達自己的意見。在仔細閱讀題目後,我們可以發現考生要評估的論證為:監獄並非遏止犯罪的良方。為了減低犯罪,法院應該大幅減低刑期,並且致力於罪犯教育與社區服務,好讓罪犯出獄後不再犯罪。

針對許多 To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion? 的題目,我們建議考生採取agree AND disagree的答題方向,也就是正反兩方都有道理的論述方式。針對「如何減低犯罪」的這個議題,我們可以論證:雖然監獄有缺點,但還是有必要性。在確定論述的大方向後,我們可以用簡單的圖表打草稿,說明(1)監獄無法減低犯罪,教育以及社區服務才可以,以及(2)監獄可以減低犯罪。

Agree (監獄無法減低犯罪,教育以及社區服務較重要) Disagree (監獄的必要性)
  • People learn about how to commit crimes from others when in prison.
  • Education prepares people for the outside world.
  • Community work is useful for the society.
  • Punishment should fit the crime.
  • Reduced prison sentences will promote crime.
  • A prison isn't supposed to be like a school.

當我們列舉想法時,我們必須確認這些想法符合正方或反方的立場,否則文章可能離題或者變得難以閱讀。舉例來說,如果考生把 Long sentences make prisoners reflect on their crimes. 放在Agree的立場之下的話,將使讀者(閱卷官)感到困惑,而在「文章連貫性與邏輯性」(coherence and cohesion)的項目被扣分。

文章段落與組織

在列舉正反兩方的立場之後,我們就可以動手寫作。以例題來說,我們可以採取四段文章的寫法。第一段介紹議題,第二段與第三段分別敘述正反兩方的論點,第四段則為結論。此外在寫作時,我們需變化句型結構或句子長度,以增加句型的豐富性。最後,我們需使用適當的連接詞(例如because、although與so)以及轉折語(例如however、consequently、for example),以確保論點之間銜接的連貫性。範例文章如下:

There are many different opinions on the best way to reduce crime. The traditional solution is to be hard on criminals and put them in prison for a very long time. An opposing view is expressed by people with more modern ideas. They think that education and community work are the long-term solutions to cutting crime. So who is right – the traditionalists or the modernists?

People in favor of reducing prison sentences often argue that prisons should not simply be places of punishment. In traditional prisons, people learn a lot about crime, so when they leave prison, they will commit more crimes. Education, however, gives people the skills to get a job when they leave prison, which means that they will probably not re-offend. Part-time work experience in the community is also very helpful, as it is a step back into everyday life in society. People can be in prison, but they can also feel they are doing useful work.

On the other hand, some people argue that long prison sentences are right because the punishment should fit the crime. If, for example, someone commits a serious crime such as bank robbery, they should go to prison for a long time. They also believe that reducing prison sentences significantly reduces people's fear of prison and consequently, people will commit more crimes. People will not be frightened of going to a prison which is like a university with learning and work experience opportunities.

In short, I agree that education and community work can have an important role in helping reduce crime, but there should be strict controls on the type of community work prisoners can do. It is important to understand that some people are a real danger to society and need to stay in prison for a very long time.

在寫完文章之後,我們建議考生留三分鐘左右的時間校對文章,確認拼字、標點符號,以及文法的正確性。

總結

在本篇文章中,我們示範雅思寫作Writing Task 2申論題的寫作流程。通過這些步驟,考生應可在40分鐘內,寫出一篇既有想法、又有條理的文章。當然,雅思寫作除了Writing Task 2申論題之外,還有Writing Task 1圖表題。我們在之後的學習文章中,也將講解圖表題的寫作技巧。所以請持續關注我們的文章,一起戰勝雅思寫作喔!

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