TOEIC多益新制聽力「語意推論題」答題4步驟

2018/07/24
TOEIC多益新制聽力「語意推論題」答題4步驟

2018年TOEIC多益改制後,聽力第三部分(簡短對話)與第四部份(簡短獨白)增加了「語意推論題」的新題型。許多正在準備多益考試的人,經常很困惑「語意推論題」會怎麼考,以及該如何回答這種新題型。在本篇文章中,我們將先說明「語意」的概念,接著我們將利用例題示範如何回答「語意推論題」。

語意

與中文相同,許多英文句子,除了「字面」的意義之外,還包括「隱含」的意義。為了說明「字面」意義以及「隱含」意義之間的差異,讓我們思考以下兩個對話中 Excuse me. 這句話所表達的意義:

對話1
A: Excuse me, but you're standing on my foot.
B: Oops. I'm sorry.
A: 不好意思,你踩到我的腳了
B: 哎喲,真抱歉。

對話2
A: You said you would cover my shift, right?
B: Excuse me, but I never said that.
A: 你說你會幫我代班,對吧?
B: 不好意思,我從來沒有那樣說。

我們可以發現,雖然 Excuse me. 這句話的「字面」意義在兩個對話中是相同的(不好意思),可是它的「隱含」意義卻不相同。在第一個對話中,A說Excuse me. 的目的是為了「抱怨」,可是在第二個對話中,B說Excuse me. 的目的卻是為了「反駁」另一個人的話。

「語意推論題」解題步驟

新制多益增加的「語意推論題」,目的即在測驗學員能否聽出句子的這一層「隱含」的意義。如同以上兩個範例對話所顯示的,想要理解一句話的「隱含」意義,我們必須了解這句話的上下文,那麼在多益聽力考試中,我們該怎麼做才能聽到題目句的上下文,進而提高答對「語意推論題」的機會呢?我們建議以下的解題步驟:

Step 1: 事先閱讀題目

與多益舊制相同,在聽對話或獨白之前,事先閱讀題目可以幫助我們預測對話或獨白的主題,並且將注意力集中在與問題相關的資訊上。針對「語意推論題」,如果學員有足夠時間的話,我們建議學員快速瀏覽選項。如此一來,學員可以大致了解題目句有那些可能的「隱含」意義可選擇。

Step 2:盡可能聽懂主題

當對話或獨白開始後,盡可能快速掌握主題或大意。例如簡短對話,快速掌握對話者的談話主題。簡短獨白,則快速掌握廣告的商品或服務,或者電話留言者的來電目的。掌握這些主題或大意,將有助於我們理解「語意推論題」題目句的上下文。

Step 3:利用題目順序預測「語意推論題」題目句出現的位置

與舊制多益相同,新制多益題目的順序大致對應聽力內容的順序。舉例來說,如果「語意推論題」出在題組的第三題,然後我們已經聽到第二題的答案,那我們就必須專心聽接下來的部分。因為「語意推論題」與細節題不同的地方在於:回答細節題(例如When),我們可能只需聽懂幾個字,可是要回答「語意推論題」,我們通常必須聽懂兩句或三句以上的句子。因此我們必須能夠判斷從哪裡開始我們需要集中我們的注意力。

Step 4:利用「語意推論題」題目句的上下文判斷題目句的「隱含」意義

這裡有三種可能的情況。最簡單的情況是,題目句後面的句子說明題目句的「隱含」意義(例如上面 Excuse me. 的第一個範例對話)。在這種情況下,我們只需聽到題目句後面的句子即可回答問題。可是有些題目,尤其是包含「代名詞」(例如it或者that) 或者「地方副詞」(例如here或者there) 的題目句,回答「隱含」意義的資訊經常出現在題目句的前(幾)句。在這種狀況下,學員就無法利用題目句進行「定位」,而必須依賴聽音辨字的能力與短期記憶來回答問題。當然,最後一種狀況是學員需要聽懂題目句的前後句。這也是最具有挑戰性的題目。

說明解題技巧後,讓我們來解析這個第三部分簡短對話的例題:

1. Why is the airport closed?
(A) A plane caught fire.
(B) The weather is bad.
(C) There was a terrorist attack.
(D) Some computers malfunctioned.

2. Why is Tina leaving for D.C.?
(A) To get married
(B) To attend a family function
(C) To give a speech
(D) To visit a friend

3. What does the man mean when he says, "Maybe you should try your luck there"?
(A) The woman should take the train.
(B) The woman should ask for a refund.
(C) The woman should buy some lottery tickets.
(D) The woman should ask to be put on the standby list.

聽力稿:

Questions 1 through 3 refer to the following conversation with three speakers.

W1: Tina, did you hear? It seems that the icy weather has completely shut down the airport.
W2: Yeah. They canceled my flight. There's no way I can get to D.C. tonight.
W1: Did they put you on the standby list for the next flight?
W2: Yeah, but my agent said he couldn't promise anything. I'm at my wits' end.
M: Isn't your cousin's wedding tomorrow? I think the rail service is still running. Maybe you should try your luck there.
W2: Why didn't I think of that! I'll do that right away. Thanks!

首先根據第一題的題目,在聽對話前,我們可以預測這個對話的主題或許與搭飛機有關。接下來,「語意推論題」是第三題,所以當我們聽到第二題的答案 (Isn't your cousin's wedding tomorrow?) 之後,我們就需要集中注意力準備第三題。然後,因為「語意推論題」的題目句是 Maybe you should try your luck there (也許你應該去那邊試試運氣),包含「地方副詞」 there,我們可以預測解題所需的資訊可能出現在題目句的前(幾)句。對話中男子提到 I think the rail service is still running (我想火車仍有行駛),所以「語意推論題」的答案即是(A) The woman should take the train. (女子應該搭火車)。

讓我們用相同的方式解析這個第四部分簡短獨白的例題:

1. Why did the speaker call?
(A) To schedule a visit
(B) To remind an occasion
(C) To change a reservation
(D) To make an appointment

2. What is the listener asked to bring?
(A) A pie
(B) A clock
(C) A book
(D) A paper

3. Why does the speaker say, "and you won't believe this"?
(A) She had an unusual guest.
(B) She got something she wanted badly.
(C) Someone threw her a surprise party.
(D) Someone offered her a part-time job.

聽力稿:

Questions 1 through 3 refer to the following telephone message.

Hi Jenna. It's Daisy. I just called to remind you that our party starts tonight at 8 o'clock. Don't be late. By the way, do you think you can bring along the book that I lent you last week, the one on advertising tactics? I need that book for my report. Oh, and you won't believe this, Mrs. Powell just dropped by and she brought a cake from the Merc's bakery that we've been dying to try. You're gonna love it. See you later.

「語意推論題」在這個題組中也是第三題,所以當我們聽到第二題的答案 (a book) 後,我們就需要更集中注意力。「語意推論題」的題目句是and you won't believe this (然後你不會相信這件事),所以我們預測解題的線索或許在題目句的後面。電話留言中,女子提到 Mrs. Powell just dropped by and she brought a cake from the Merc's bakery that we've been dying to try. (Powell太太剛剛來訪,而且她從Merc's烘焙坊帶了我們一直很想吃看看的蛋糕),所以「語意推論題」的答案即是(B) She got something she wanted badly. (她得到了某個她很想要的東西)。

總結

在本篇文章中,我們討論了如何回答新制多益中的聽力「語意推論題」。希望大家可以將這些方法應用在實際的題目中。我們之後也將有專篇文章,討論如何回答另一種聽力新題型「圖表整合題」。所以請持續關注我們的文章,一起戰勝新制多益喔!

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